OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection Authentication

OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection allows Traefik Enterprise to retrieve metadata about an access token from an oAuth 2.0 server with the Token Introspection extension. The metadata can be used to restrict the access to applications. For more information please refer to the RFC.

Authentication Source

Before configuring an OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection middleware, an Authentication Source must be defined in the static configuration.

Below is an example of a minimal OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection Authentication Source that can be added to a static configuration:

authSources:
  oAuthIntroSource:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      url: https://localhost/oauth2/introspect
      authorizationHeader: Basic dGVzdDp0ZXN0
[authSources]
  [authSources.oAuthIntroSource]
    [authSources.oAuthIntroSource.oAuthIntrospection]
      url = "https://localhost/oauth2/introspect"
      authorizationHeader = "Basic dGVzdDp0ZXN0"

Authentication Source Options

url

Required, Default=""

The url is the full introspection endpoint URL. It must include the scheme and path.

authSources:
  oAuthIntroSource:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      url: https://localhost/oauth2/introspect
[authSources]
  [authSources.oAuthIntroSource]
    [authSources.oAuthIntroSource.oAuthIntrospection]
        url = "https://localhost/oauth2/introspect"

authorizationHeader

Optional, Default=""

The authorizationHeader is the authentication used to access the introspection server endpoint. The value is used as the Authorization header sent to the introspection server.

authSources:
  oAuthIntroSource:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      authorizationHeader: Basic dGVzdDp0ZXN0
[authSources]
  [authSources.oAuthIntroSource]
    [authSources.oAuthIntroSource.oAuthIntrospection]
        authorizationHeader = "Basic dGVzdDp0ZXN0"

customHeaders

Optional, Default=""

The customHeaders are user defined headers to send in every introspection request.

authSources:
  oAuthIntroSource:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      customHeaders:
        Custom-Header: test
        Source: traefikee
[authSources]
  [authSources.oAuthIntroSource]
    [authSources.oAuthIntroSource.oAuthIntrospection]
        [authSources.oAuthIntroSource.oAuthIntrospection.customHeaders]
            Custom-Header = "test"
            Source = "traefikee"

OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection Middleware

After declaring an OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection Authentication Source in the static configuration of the cluster, OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection middleware can be added to routers in the dynamic configuration:

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      source: oAuthIntroSource
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source": "oAuthIntroSource"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          source: oAuthIntroSource
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    source = "oAuthIntroSource"

Middleware Options

source

Required, Default=""

The source option should contain the name of the Authentication Source used by the middleware.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      source: oAuthIntroSource
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source": "oAuthIntroSource"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          source: oAuthIntroSource
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    source = "oAuthIntroSource"

tokenQueryKey

Optional, Default=""

The tokenQueryKey sets the middleware to look for the token to introspect in a specific query parameter if not found in the Authorization header. The middleware will always look in the Authorization header first.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      tokenQueryKey: tok
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey": "tok"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          tokenQueryKey: tok
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    tokenQueryKey = "tok"

tokenTypeHint

Optional, Default=""

The tokenTypeHint is a hint to the introspection server as to what type of token is being introspected. Please refer to the official documentation for more details.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      tokenTypeHint: access_token
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint": "access_token"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          tokenTypeHint: access_token
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    tokenTypeHint = "access_token"

forwardAuthorization

Optional, Default=false

The forwardAuthorization option determines if the authorization headers will be forwarded or stripped from a request after it has been approved by the middleware.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardAuthorization=true"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      forwardAuthorization: true
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardAuthorization=true"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardAuthorization": "true"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardAuthorization=true"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          forwardAuthorization: true
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    forwardAuthorization = true

forwardHeaders

Optional, Default=None

The forwardHeaders option sets the HTTP headers to add to requests and populates them with values extracted from an introspection response.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Scope=scope"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      forwardHeaders:
        Group: grp
        Scope: scope
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Scope=scope"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group": "grp",
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Scope": "scope"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Scope=scope"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          forwardHeaders:
            Group: grp
            Scope: scope
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders]
      Group = "grp"
      Scope = "scope"

claims

Optional, Default=""

The claims option sets claims to validate in order to authorize the request.

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      claims: Equals(`grp`, `admin`)
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims": "Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          claims: Equals(`grp`, `admin`)
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    claims = "Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
Syntax

The following functions are supported in claims:

Function Description Example
Equals Validated the equality of the value in key with value. Equals(`grp`, `admin`)
Prefix Validates the value in key has the prefix of value. Prefix(`referrer`, `http://example.com`)
Contains (string) Validates the value in key contains value. Contains(`referrer`, `/foo/`)
Contains (array) Validates the key array contains the value. Contains(`areas`, `home`)
SplitContains Validates the value in key contains the value once split by the separator. SplitContains(`scope`, ` `, `writer`)
OneOf Validates the key array contains one of the values. OneOf(`areas`, `office`, `lab`)

All functions can be joined by boolean operands. The supported operands are:

Operand Description Example
&& Compares two functions and returns true only if both evaluate to true. Equals(`grp`, `admin`) && Equals(`active`, `true`)
|| Compares two functions and returns true if either evaluate to true. Equals(`grp`, `admin`) || Equals(`active`, `true`)
! Returns false if the function is true, otherwise returns true. !Equals(`grp`, `testers`)

All examples will return true for the following data structure:

{
  "active": true,
  "grp": "admin",
  "scope": "reader writer deploy",
  "referrer": "http://example.com/foo/bar",
  "areas": [
    "office",
    "home"
  ]
}
Nested claims

Nested claims are supported by using a . between keys. For example:

user.name
{
  "active": true,
  "grp": "admin",
  "scope": "reader writer deploy",
  "referrer": "http://example.com/foo/bar",
  "areas": [
    "office",
    "home"
  ],
  "user" {
    "name": "John Snow",
    "status": "undead"
  }
}
John Snow

Handling keys that contain a '.'

If the key contains a dot, the dot can be escaped using \.

Handling a key that contains a '\'

If the key contains a \, it needs to be doubled \\.

Advanced Configuration Example

Below is an advanced configuration example using custom claims validation and forward headers:

labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Expires-At=exp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: test-oauth-intro
spec:
  plugin:
    oAuthIntrospection:
      source: oAuthIntroSource
      tokenQueryKey: tok
      tokenTypeHint: access_token
      forwardHeaders:
        Group: grp
        Expires-At: exp
      claims: Equals(`grp`, `admin`)
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Expires-At=exp"
- "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
"labels": {
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source": "oAuthIntroSource"
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey": "tok"
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint": "access_token"
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group": "grp"
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Expires-At": "exp"
  "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims": "Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
}
labels:
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.source=oAuthIntroSource"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenQueryKey=tok"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.tokenTypeHint=access_token"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Group=grp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders.Expires-At=exp"
  - "traefik.http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.claims=Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
http:
  middlewares:
    test-oauth-intro:
      plugin:
        oAuthIntrospection:
          source: oAuthIntroSource
          tokenQueryKey: tok
          tokenTypeHint: access_token
          forwardHeaders:
            Group: grp
            Expires-At: exp
          claims: Equals(`grp`, `admin`)
[http.middlewares]
  [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection]
    source = "oAuthIntroSource"
    tokenQueryKey = "tok"
    tokenTypeHint = "access_token"
    claims = "Equals(`grp`, `admin`)"
    [http.middlewares.test-oauth-intro.plugin.oAuthIntrospection.forwardHeaders]
      Group = "grp"
      Expires-At = "exp"